The Roman Temple of Portunus, Rome, Italy, 1st century B.C.E.
The year 221 B.C.E. was a turning point both for Rome and for Roman art. Breaking with precedent, Marcellus, conqueror of the fabulously wealthy Sicilian Greek city of Syracuse, brought back to Rome not only the usual spoils of war -captured arms and armor, gold and silver coins, and the like- but also the city’s artistic patrimony. Thus began, in the words of the historian Livy, “the craze for works of Greek art.” […] Nevertheless, although the Romans developed a virtually insatiable taste for Greek “antiques,” the Etruscan basis of Roman art and architecture was never forgotten. The buildings and statues of the Roman Republic are highly eclectic, drawing on both Greek and Etruscan traditions.
Eclecticism is the primary characteristic of the Republican temple on the east bank of the Tiber popularly known as the Temple of the Fortuna Virilis. It is actually a temple dedicated to Portunus, the Roman god of harbors. Its plan follows the Etruscan pattern with a high podium and a flight of steps only at the front. Freestanding columns are confined to the deep porch. But the structure is built of stone (local tufa and travertine), overlaid originally with stucco in imitation of Greek marble.
The columns are not Tuscan but Ionic, complete with flutes and bases, and there is a matching Ionic freeze. Moreover, in an effort to approximate a peripteral Greek temple yet maintain the basic Etruscan plan, the architect added a series of engaged Ionic half columns to the sides and back of the cella. The result was a pseudoperipteral temple. Although the design combines Etruscan and Greek elements, the resultant mix is uniquely Roman.
-Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, Enhanced Edition, Volume I.
Photo courtesy & taken by Darkroom Daze.
Archaeologists from the University of Münster excavating the ancient sanctuary of Jupiter Dolichenus near the town of Dülük in southern Turkey have unearthed more than 600 stamp and cylinder seals dating from between the 7th and the 4th centuries B.C.
Visit metmuseum.org ~ Gold ring with carnelian intaglio: winged Nemesis. Imperial Period. 1st–early 3rd century A.D. Culture: Roman, Cypriot Medium: Carnelian, gold
Many omens for Caligula’s approaching death were reported. While the statue of Olympian Jupiter was being dismantled before removal to Rome, at his command, it burst into such a roar of laughter that the scaffolding collapsed and the workmen took to their heels; and a man named Cassius appeared immediately afterwards saying that Jupiter had ordered him, in a dream, to sacrifice a bull…
… On the night before his assassination [Caligula] dreamed that he was standing beside Jupiter’s heavenly throne, when the God kicked him with the great toe of his right foot and sent him tumbling to earth.
|—||Suetonius, Gaius Caligula|
Roman Bronze Nude Aphrodite Wearing a Crown and Eros
On her extended left palm, and a pomegranate in her upraised right hand; on original base. The Eros is ancient but not shown in de Ridder.
Later 2nd Century AD
H. 9 5/8 in. (24 cm)
via > artfinding.com
Detail of a fresco from Pompeii showing a scene from the myth of Jason. Jason has arrived at the court of King Pelias, who has recognised him from a prophesy as being the man who will kill him. Pelias will go on to send Jason on his quest to retrieve the Golden Fleece in a futile attempt to subvert the prophesy.
Other elements of the fresco show Pelias on the steps of a temple in the process of sacrificing a bull. He has just noticed Jason’s approach and looks terrified at his impending fate.
In the Naples Archaeological Museum
Ganymede was a young shepherd from Troy, chosen by Zeus to be the cup bearer of the Gods on Mount Olympus. Zeus transformed into an eagle to carry the boy to his new destiny. His image can be seen to represent homosexual desire and love, and the fact that he was chosen by Zeus as an allegory for an older male choosing a young male lover.
Marble sculpture in the Naples Archaeological Museum